e-patent > コラム > 有名な特許 > コーエン&ボイヤーの遺伝子組み換え特許

有名な特許の第2弾では遺伝子組み換え技術の基本特許であり、かつ、大学の技術移転の成功事例として有名なコーエン&ボイヤー特許を紹介します。

 

 

コーエン&ボイヤー特許についての解説は以下のサイトが役立ちます。

 

 

 

 

さて、コーエン&ボイヤー特許(Cohen-Boyer特許)は、以下の3件あります。

 

 

  1. US4,237,224:Process for producing biologically functional molecular chimeras
  2. US4,468,464:Biologically functional molecular chimeras
  3. US4,740,470:Biologically functional molecular chimeras

 

 

よく世の中で言われているコーエン&ボイヤー特許は1件目の遺伝子組み換え方法の特許です。以下、3件について紹介していきます。

 

 

1) US4,237,224

【タイトル】Process for producing biologically functional molecular chimeras

【発明者】Cohen; Stanley N. ; Boyer; Herbert W.

【権利者】Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Jr. University

【要約】Method and compositions are provided for replication and expression of exogenous genes in microorganisms. Plasmids or virus DNA are cleaved to provide linear DNA having ligatable termini to which is inserted a gene having complementary termini, to provide a biologically functional replicon with a desired phenotypical property. The replicon is inserted into a microorganism cell by transformation. Isolation of the transformants provides cells for replication and expression of the DNA molecules present in the modified plasmid. The method provides a convenient and efficient way to introduce genetic capability into microorganisms for the production of nucleic acids and proteins, such as medically or commercially useful enzymes, which may have direct usefulness, or may find expression in the production of drugs, such as hormones, antibiotics, or the like, fixation of nitrogen, fermentation, utilization of specific feedstocks, or the like.

【クレーム1】A method for replicating a biologically functional DNA, which comprises:

transforming under transforming conditions compatible unicellular organisms with biologically functional DNA to form transformants; said biologically functional DNA prepared in vitro by the method of:

(a) cleaving a viral or circular plasmid DNA compatible with said unicellular organism to provide a first linear segment having an intact replicon and termini of a predetermined character;

(b) combining said first linear segment with a second linear DNA segment, having at least one intact gene and foreign to said unicellular organism and having termini ligatable to said termini of said first linear segment, wherein at least one of said first and second linear DNA segments has a gene for a phenotypical trait, under joining conditions where the termini of said first and second segments join to provide a functional DNA capable of replication and transcription in said unicellular organism;

growing said unicellular organisms under appropriate nutrient conditions; and

isolating said transformants from parent unicellular organisms by means of said phenotypical trait imparted by said biologically functional DNA.

 

 

2) US4,468,464

【タイトル】Biologically functional molecular chimeras

【発明者】Cohen; Stanley N. ; Boyer; Herbert W.

【権利者】Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Jr. University

【要約】 Method and compositions are provided for replication and expression of exogenous genes in microorganisms. Plasmids or virus DNA are cleaved to provide linear DNA having ligatable termini, which are bound to a gene having complementary termini, to provide a biologically functional replicon with a desired phenotypical property. The replicon is inserted into a microorganism cell by transformation. Isolation of the transformants provides cells for replication and expression of the DNA molecules present in the modified plasmid. The method provides a convenient and efficient way to introduce genetic capability into microorganisms for the production of nucleic acids are proteins, such as medically or commercially useful enzymes, which may have direct usefulness, or may find expression in the production of drugs, such as hormones, antibiotics, or the like, fixation of nitrogen, fermentation, utilization of specific feedstocks, or the like. The invention was supported by generous grants of NIH, NSF and the American Cancer Society.

【クレーム1】 As a composition of matter, a biologically functional recombinant plasmid capable of selection and replication in a prokaryotic cell comprising:

a first DNA segment containing an intact replicon recognized by said cell derived by cleaving a virus or plasmid compatible with said cell at other than the replicon site, which segment is covalently joined in vitro at its ends to the complementary ends of a second DNA segment foreign to said cell and having at least one intact gene, said second DNA segment derived from a source which does not exchange genetic information with said cell.

 

 

3) US4,740,470

【タイトル】Biologically functional molecular chimeras

【発明者】Cohen; Stanley N. ; Boyer; Herbert W.

【権利者】Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Jr. University

【要約】Method and compositions are provided for replication and expression of exogenous genes in microorganisms. Plasmids or virus DNA are cleaved to provide linear DNA having ligatable termini, which are bound to a gene having complementary termini, to provide a biologically functional replicon with a desired phenotypical property. The replicon is inserted into a microorganism cell by transformation. Isolation of the transformants provides cells for replication and expression of the DNA molecules present in the modified plasmid. The method provides a convenient and efficient way to introduce genetic capability into microorganisms for the production of nucleic acids and proteins, such as medically or commercially useful enzymes, which may have direct usefulness, or may find expression in the production of drugs, such as hormones, antibiotics, or the like, fixation of nitrogen, fermentation, utilization of specific feedstocks, or the like. The invention was supported by generous grants of NIH, NSF and the American Cancer Society.

【クレーム1】A method for replicating biologically functional circular recombinant DNA molecules in transformed host cells, which comprises:

(1) preparing biologically functional circular recombinant DNA molecules by: joining first and second DNA linear segments, said first and second DNA segments having termini of a predetermined character at least in part complementary, at least one of said first and second DNA linear segments having a gene for a phenotypical trait, said first DNA linear segment having an intact extrachromosomal replicon recognized by said host cell, and said second DNA linear segment having foreign DNA derived from a source which does not exchange genetic information with said host cells;

(2) transforming said host cells with said biologically functional recombinant DNA molecules;

(3) growing said host cells under appropriate nutrient conditions; and

(4) isolating said transformant cells with said biologically functional recombinant DNA molecules by means of said phenotypical trait imparted by said biologically functional recombinant DNA molecules.

 

2006.03.05